This year, global temperatures have soared to 1.1°C above levels seen before the industrial revolution.

From wildfires in the Amazon to heatwaves across Europe, this global warning has had devastating impacts around the world.

Now, the World Meteorological Organisation has highlighted some of the impacts of rising temperatures in 2019, and is appealing for urgent climate action.

Mr Antonio Guterres, UN Secretary-General, said: “The last five years have been the hottest ever recorded. The consequences are already making themselves felt in the form of more extreme weather events and associated disasters, from hurricanes to drought to floods to wildfires.

"Ice caps are melting. In Greenland alone, 179 billion tonnes of ice melted in July. Permafrost in the Arctic is thawing 70 years ahead of projections. Antarctica is melting three times as fast as a decade ago. Ocean levels are rising quicker than expected, putting some of our biggest and most economically important cities at risk."

Floods

Parts of the US, northern Canada, northern Russia and south west Asia received abnormally high rainfall, with the 12-month average for the contiguous US from July 2018 to July 2019 the highest on record.

The Indian monsoon was delayed, while floods hit northern Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil after very wet conditions in January, Iran was badly hit by flooding in late March and early April, and drought-affected parts of east Africa were hit by floods in October and early November.


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Drought

There were exceptionally dry conditions in Indonesia and parts of the Mekong basin in Asia from mid-year onwards, while long-term drought conditions in inland eastern Australia expanded and intensified in 2019 – with the country experiencing the driest January to October since 1902.

There were also dry conditions in many parts of central America until heavy rains in October, while Santiago, Chile, saw less than 25% of the long term average for the year to November 20.


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Heatwaves

Europe sweltered in two heatwaves in late June and late July, with national records set in France (46C), Germany (42.6C), the Netherlands (40.7C), Belgium (41.8C), Luxembourg (40.8C) and the UK (38.7C).

Australia had an exceptionally hot summer, with the average temperature the highest on record by almost 1C, and January was the country's hottest on record, with the mercury soaring to a high of 46.6C in Adelaide on January 24, a record for the city.

Wildfires

There were more fires than usual in Siberia and Alaska, with wildfire in parts of the Arctic where it was previously extremely rare.

Severe drought in Indonesia and neighbouring countries led to the most significant fire season since 2015, and while Brazil's reported Amazon fires were only slightly above the 10-year average, South America overall saw the most wildfires since 2010.


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Tropical cyclones

Tropical Cyclone Idai which made landfall in Mozambique on March 15 is one of the strongest ever known to hit the east coast of Africa, causing many casualties, destroying crops and displacing people in Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe.

One of the year's most intense tropical cyclones was the slow-moving Dorian which caused huge destruction in the Bahamas, while Typhoon Hagibis caused severe flooding in Japan in October.


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Health

People's health is increasingly at risk from record-setting high temperatures, with extra deaths during a heatwave in late July to early August in Japan, and in the European heatwaves.

Climatic changes are making it easier for mosquitoes to transmit dengue fever, which is on the rise.

Food security

Delays to seasonal rains in southern Africa and extensive dry periods is set to reduce cereal crop yields and 12.5 million facing severe food insecurity, while the situation is deteriorating in parts of Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda due to a poor rainy season.

The worst flooding in a decade in parts of Afghanistan in March, and with many provinces still recovering from severe drought in 2018, 13.5 million people are now facing food insecurity.

More than 10 million people were forced to move somewhere else within their country between January and June 2019, with seven million of those displaced forced to leave their homes as a result of disasters such as Cyclone Idai in south east Africa and flooding in Iran.

The number of newly-displaced people as a result of weather extremes could more than triple to around 22 million by the end of 2019.

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