The vaccination developed by a team at the University of Oxford showed promising signs when it was tested on six rhesus macaques without them suffering any side effects.
In order to test the vaccine, the animals were given half the dose of the same treatment that is currently also being trialled on human participants.
The study showed that some of the animals developed antibodies within two weeks.
The trial also looked at the reaction in mice and researchers found that all animals had developed a resistance to the bug within 28 days of having the jab.
So far in the UK there have been over 33,000 deaths caused by the coronavirus and the breakthrough could bring scientists even closer to finding an effective vaccine, but those working on the research highlighted that the results may not be the same on humans.
The research has not yet been peer-reviewed by other scientists.
It claims that a single dose can help prevent damage to the lungs.
Scientists working on the study also claimed that they saw a "significantly reduced viral load" in the systems of the monkeys who had been exposed to the disease, compared to those that did not. It also said there was "no pneumonia present".
When it came to the effects on mice it said a reduction in viral shedding from the nose had not been observed.
Stephen Evans professor of pharmacoepidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine said the findings were "good news" and added that the most important thing was the combination of "considerable efficacy in terms of viral load and subsequent pneumonia, but no evidence of immune-enhanced disease".
He added: "The latter has been a concern for vaccines in general, for example with vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and for SARS vaccines.
"This was a definite theoretical concern for a vaccine against SARS Cov-2 (Covid-19) and finding no evidence for it in this study is very encouraging."
This is while Dr Penny War, a visiting professor in pharmaceutical medicine at King’s College London said one concern is that vaccines could lead to antibody dependent enhancement.
This is when antibodies actually end up boosting the way the virus enters the immune cells.
She said this is one reason why there was a lack of a vaccine against SARS.
"It is helpful to see that monkeys vaccinated with this SARS CoV2 (Covid-19) vaccine did not have any evidence of enhanced lung pathology and that, despite some evidence of upper respiratory tract infection by SARS COV2 after high viral load virus challenge, monkeys given the vaccine did not have any evidence of pneumonia.
"These results support the ongoing clinical trial of the vaccine in humans, the results of which are eagerly awaited."
Just last month Oxford University started human trials and had used a common cold virus to stimulate the immune system.
Scientists at Imperial College London are also set to start tests on people in June.
Both trials will look at how the human body can fight off the disease.
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