One man was seen clutching a bat, and police were seen holding others back from the scuffles.
Photographs of the disturbances came as thousands joined a march in support of the jailed activist today in central London.
Demonstrators chanted his name and "we want Tommy out" as others delivered speeches demanding he be freed.
But anti-fascist protesters were quick to confront them, many of them armed with sticks and wearing balaclavas.
Onlookers on the scene said the scuffles were quickly brought back under control by police, who had a heavy presence for today's demos.
Reports suggested that up to 3,000 Tommy supporters came out on Whitehall today.
The former EDL leader was put in prison for 13 months for contempt of court after filming people involved in a criminal trial, and putting it up online.
Robinson, whose real name is Stephen Yaxley-Lennon, though he also uses other aliases, is a founder of the English Defence League, which has organised violent demonstrations against Islamic immigrants in the UK in the past decade.
More recently, Robinson has branded himself a journalist and campaigner against Islamic extremism, a move that won him contacts with American anti-Muslim activists.
Some of the pro-Tommy supporters today had joined with a small procession of Donald Trump backers, who had marched from the US Embassy in Battersea to show their appreciation for the US President.
Police had already been forced to put restrictions in both demonstrations amid fears of violence.
A separate demo last month saw protesters clash with police then too.
CONTEMPT DEFINED: What is contempt of court and why can you be jailed for it?
Tommy Robinson was jailed for contempt of court after publishing material that could prejudice an ongoing trial.
In the UK, a person can be found in contempt of court if they wilfully defy a court order.
According to the Crown Prosecution Service, the main types of the offence can be physically interfering in a trial, threatening witnesses or obstructing justice.
Showing disrespect to a judge can also be contempt of the court.
If someone is in contempt of the Magistrates' Court, a person can be imprisoned for one month or face a fine of up to £2,500.
But for those in contempt of a crown court, they can be jailed for up to two years or face a fine.
In the UK, media can only report the facts of a case.
In the US, contempt of court is generally not considered to be a criminal offence.
Due to the First Amendment, the media outlet cannot be found in contempt of court.
Meanwhile one of Donald Trump's ambassadors has called on the UK to treat jailed Tommy "sympathetically".
It is alleged that Sam Brownback, the United States Ambassador for International Religious Freedom, complained to the British ambassador in Washington DC in a June meeting with Sir Kim Darroch, Britain’s Ambassador to the US.
The claims were made by a British official and two sources close to the organisers of the pro-Robinson demonstration that took place today.
Separately there were anti-Donald Trump protests in Scotland today as President Trump enjoys his first day north of the border.
He has been snapped playing a round of golf with his son Eric, before he flies off to Russia tomorrow.
The US President, whose mother was Scottish, tweeted this morning: "I have arrived in Scotland and will be at Trump Turnberry for two days of meetings, calls and hopefully, some golf – my primary form of exercise!
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